The Schengen visa has made traveling between the 26 member countries of the Schengen area (22 European Union states and 4 non-EU members) much simpler and easier. Traveling on a Schengen visa means that the visa holder can travel to all (or all) member countries on a single visa, avoiding the hassle and expense of obtaining individual visas for each country. This is particularly advantageous for people who want to visit several European countries during the same trip. The Schengen visa is a visitor visa. It is issued to citizens of countries that require a visa before entering Europe.
Purpose The purpose of the visit must be leisure, tourism or business. Once the visa is issued, the visa holder is allowed to enter all member countries and travel freely throughout the Schengen area for the duration indicated on the visa, up to a maximum of 90 days in any 180-day period. It is highly recommended to plan your trip within the stated validity period of your Schengen visa as it can be very difficult to obtain extensions, forcing you to comply with Schengen rules and regulations in order to stay. A Schengen visa allows the holder to travel freely within the Schengen countries for a maximum stay of up to 90 days in any 6 month period, but shorter visas may be granted.
Schengen visa countries All Schengen countries are in Europe. However, it should not be confused with the EU (European Union). The European Union and the Schengen Area originate from two different agreements between European countries. A total of 26 countries, including all European Union countries (except Ireland and the United Kingdom) and four non-EU members (Iceland, Norway, Liechtenstein and Switzerland), have signed the Schengen Agreement.
DANGER! Schengen visa holders are not allowed to live or work permanently in Europe. Schengen visa holders only have the right to travel to member countries for business or pleasure as a temporary visitor. For information on the possibility of living in Europe, see our Residence Permits page.
The concept of outsourcing some of the day-to-day activities of the company has proven to be an effective way to improve performance in many countries. Many companies have found it beneficial to eliminate all departments not directly related to their primary line of business: sales, manufacturing, or services.
We provide accounting services for small and medium sized businesses (accounting services only in Latvia, Lithuania or Estonia) and offer an efficient and friendly service that offers cost-effective solutions for your accounting and payroll needs in all Baltic States. We implement a full financial analysis of accounting and timely notification of the manager about any risks that threaten successful business development. We take care of preparing accounting reports, all necessary accounting documents related to Latvia and submitting them to the State Revenue Service, Central Statistical Office and other institutions of the Republic of Latvia.
Our accounting services in Latvia include: Financial accounting and reporting Accounting for special purposes (payroll, accounting in the customer system, helping foreign customers to fill out VAT returns, etc.) Preparation of annual accounts Creation of regulatory documents (e.g. internal accounting regulations) Communication with the tax authorities Complete management of the company's accounts Accounting advice in day-to-day business Beyond creating the books and reports, we continue to work with the client. At this stage, our services include, among other things, monitoring the accounting activities performed by the client and assisting in solving accounting issues.
Our services also include:
Ad hoc support for internal finance staff, financial controllers and management on accounting and tax issues Assistance with statutory or internal audits Conducting periodic reviews of accounting records and procedures Implementation of a model for posting transactions in the group's single currency Implementation of a reporting model for group reporting purposes Development of a methodology for creating and controlling the company budget
Hong Kong is one of the best places to establish companies in Asia. Companies in Hong Kong pay no taxes on income obtained from outside Hong Kong. Business infrastructure in Hong Kong is highly developed, offering easy access to mainland China, strong banking and subtle incorporation procedures and corporate laws.
Company in Hong Kong Company formation in Hong Kong takes around 1-2 business days At least one Director and one shareholder are required Minimum share capital required is 940 EUR Director of the company doesn't need to be a resident of Hong Kong Local Registered Office and a Company Secretary are required.
Company management Return filing, Employer's Return filing and Profits Tax Return filing are required annually. Annual cost of maintaining a company in Hong Kong is 215 EUR.
Hong Kong corporate tax Zero corporate tax on income from outside of Hong Kong Corporate tax on profits within Hong Kong is only 17.5% Income tax for individuals on income derived in or from Hong Kong is 16%
Civil Code of the Republic of Lithuania lay dawn the legal norms of foundation, legal status, management bodies and their competence, liquidation and reorganization of different type companies in Lithuania. According to the Civil Code, all companies operating in Lithuania have a status of a legal person. A legal person shall be defined as a company, institution or organization, which may acquire and exercise rights and obligations at its own name. Prior to establishing an enterprise it is essential to assess and choose the type of an undertaking which is the most appropriate for you in legal and economic terms, because this choice will affect not only the amount of necessary equity capital, but also the legal status of the enterprise and other business-related issues.
The most common form of a business presence in Lithuania is a limited liability company (UAB). There are four main kinds of company registration Lithuania for foreign investors, and they are as follows:
public company (AB) is similar to limited liability company (LLC) or joint stock company (JSC) private company (UAB) general partnership (TUB) or limited partnership (KUB) branch or representative Office All business entities must register with the unified Register of Legal Persons (The Registrar), administered by the State Enterprise Centre of Registers.
Baltic Legal will assist you in preparation of incorporation documents and represent your interests in the Register Centre. More on Baltic Legal will help you set up business in Lithuania and do everything related to company formation.
Public limited liability company (AB) Public limited liability company is the most common business vehicle for medium or large companies in Lithuania.
Authorised capital When establishing a public limited liability company, the minimum registered capital is EUR 40,000. The minimum registered capital must be formed in bank account; at least 25% have to be paid up. The capital is divided into shares, which may be traded or offered for sale publicly. Founder One or more persons can be the founder/s (shareholder/s) of a public limited liability company, and they can be both natural persons and legal entities. The founder may be a resident or non-resident of the Republic of Lithuania. Status A public limited liability company is considered a legal entity. Liability The company and its shareholders have limited liability, they are liable for its obligations to the extent of its entire property. A founder or shareholder is not liable for the public limited liability company's obligation, as well as the public limited liability company is not liable for the founder's or shareholder's obligations. Management body The decision-making body of a limited liability company is the board with minimum of three board or supervisory council directors. The management bodies of the company are determined by the general shareholders meeting. Private limited liability company (UAB) The most common way to invest in the Republic of Lithuania for smaller foreign investors is to establish a private company.
Authorised capital When establishing a private limited liability company, the minimum registered capital is EUR 2,500. The minimum registered capital must be formed in bank account; at least 25% have to be paid up. The capital is divided into shares, which may not be traded or offered for sale publicly. Founder One or more persons can be the founder/s (shareholder/s) of a private limited liability company. The founder may be a resident or non-resident of the Republic of Lithuania. Status A private limited liability company is considered a legal entity. Liability The company and its shareholders have limited liability. The shareholders' undertaking is limited to the amount of the capital invested only. Management body A private limited liability company is determined by the general shareholders meeting, there is no requirement for board or supervisory council. The maximum number of shareholders in a private limited liability company must not exceed 250. Audit Annual audits are required if turnover exceeds EUR1.4m.
On September 27, newspapers reported that the Latvian government had committed to making a decision on quotas for acquiring residence permits through real estate. This discussion about a possible change of the immigration law in Latvia started after the national party with members of the Visu Latvijai! (All for Latvia) and Tēvzemei un brīvībai/LNNK (For the Fatherland and Freedom/LLNK). These parties had expressed strong protest against the perceived immigrant situation in Latvia. The National Party picked the perfect time to raise the issue, right before the next vote on approving the budget, so the other parties and the Latvian people had to get involved in the discussion and make sure there couldn't be a solution to the problem avoided.
No government shutdown for the Latvians Although the government did not support what the national party wanted, its opposition had to take second place to higher-level budget changes. The issue of residence permits through investment in real estate was a trivial issue in the context of the government agenda and there seemed to be no compromise, however, almost everyone in the Latvian government had similar ideas regarding the possibility of introducing additional requirements for residence permits in the form of required ones Investments to support Latvian families included in the Immigration Law.
As mentioned earlier, the national party wanted to change the law to stop immigration to Latvia of people obtaining residence permits through real estate before 2014 and instead focus on supporting Latvian families and looking after new mothers. The leading Vienotība (Unity) party disagreed with the national party's plan to halt the residency program, but instead proposed doubling the investment amount required for the real estate program, introducing a quota system and introducing a special donation fund scheme in addition. For the sake of completeness, Reformu Partija (Party of Reforms), another party involved in the discussions, has proposed to end the real estate residency permit scheme altogether, but to do so in the longer term so that businesses and real estate companies can prepare for the changes and would therefore respect the not feel the sudden loss of customers and investments. They suggested 2015, but that was flexible.
Not just about politics On September 30, Latvian pop philosopher Māris Zanders said: "Residence permits are not only a problem for politicians". By this he meant that all these discussions were pointless and that such a real estate residency program in the Latvian immigration law brought with it the real possibility of creating a new real estate bubble, which in the history of Latvia has proved dangerous - for the country, for Locals and even for the immigrants. It is difficult to predict events, but even the thought of a possible bubble brings back very difficult memories for most Latvians.
Zanders went on to note that during the post-2008 Great Depression, far more people left Latvia than came - removing any concerns about overpopulation or overcrowding. Furthermore, most of these immigrants actually create jobs - they don't take jobs away from Latvians and instead contribute to the local economy. A more serious question is whether Latvia will be a producing and exporting nation on a global scale, or just a consumer.
According to the latest Economic Freedom of the World: 2011 Annual Report, published by the Fraser Institute in Canada, Latvia ranks 60th.
The Fraser Institute collected data from 2009 and compared to the previous year, Latvia fell five places in the Economic Freedom of the World survey.
In a year, Estonia has dropped three spots in the poll to rank 15, but Lithuania has climbed 9 spots to rank 24.
Result of Latvia Latvia received a score of 6.92 out of 10 points.
Hong Kong remains in first place with a score of 9.01.
It is followed by Singapore (8.68 points), New Zealand (8.2), Switzerland (8.03), Australia (7.98), Canada (7.81), Chile (7.77), the United Kingdom ( 7.71), Mauritius (7.67) and the US (7.6).
In total, the Economic Freedom of the World study covers 141 countries. The bottom countries in the survey are Zimbabwe - 4.08, Myanmar - 4.16 and Venezuela - 4.28 (out of 10 points).
The Fraser Institute has been conducting research into the degree of economic freedom since 1996. The Global Index of Economic Freedom consists of sub-indices that describe the degree of freedom in five domains – size of government (spending, taxes and corporations), legal form and security of property rights, access to sound money, freedom of international trade and regulation of credit, work and Company.
Getting a job and working in Netherlands is one of the reasons why one might want to acquire a residence permit in Europe (an example of this would be a residence permit in Latvia). Working in Netherlands also allows you to enjoy all the benefits of residing in the EU, such as freedom of moving in the Schengen area, the chance to be employed and do business in the member-states with fewer requirement, as well as travel to European destinations without the need for a visa (with some exceptions).
Vacancies As of now, there are approximately 290 900 vacancies available in Netherlands. That is 3.4% of all the job positions, both occupied and vacant, in the country.
Wages and expenses In Netherlands the minimum wage is EUR 1635.6, while the average salary is EUR 2855.
A single person in Netherlands spends an average of EUR 864 per month, not including rent.
Cryptocurrency is a relatively new term, having emerged in 2008. In general, it is a digital currency. The main principles of almost all cryptocurrencies are:
Decentralization of emission/control bodies; Application of various cryptographic methods; Collective systematization. Cryptocurrencies usually do not have common issuing and control bodies. No national bank or other government structure has direct control over the issuance and value of cryptocurrencies. This explains why its value and general status are determined solely by a theoretical consensus of all its holders.
Modern blockchain technology Blockchain is a system that records all transactions related to cryptocurrency. The system contains modules, each called a “block”. Each block represents a decoded record of a specific cryptocurrency-related transaction. It also contains an encoded reference to the previous block, which continuously contains a record regarding the previous transaction. As a result, all information related to transactions and manipulations performed with specific units of a single cryptocurrency can be traced back to the original entry. By performing such a backtrack, its validity can be checked. You have to keep in mind that the blocks and entries cannot be changed after registration, making it impossible to influence / modify the entire chain, making it a safe and elegant solution for digital transactions.
Cryptocurrency trading Despite the fact that there are several different cryptocurrencies, each serving different purposes and using slightly different methods, there is one common set of rules when trading cryptocurrencies worth following:
learn as much as possible about the blockchain and its main principles; Study on the most popular cryptocurrencies and their advantages; carefully weigh your options and possible risks; Stay up to date with news related to finance and cryptocurrencies; create an exchange account specifically for crypto trading; start with smaller amounts to study the market; always research and constantly improve your knowledge; Finally, try to trade with larger numbers, implement complex solutions. Cryptocurrency Mining Process Crypto mining is a general way of referring to a transaction validation process. It is usually performed by using computing power to perform certain calculations within a common mining system. For contributing computing power, miners are usually rewarded with certain units of the cryptocurrency being mined. Such mining affects and increases the total number of cryptocurrencies in sales, affecting their public value.
Cryptocurrency payment solutions With cryptocurrencies emerging rapidly just a decade ago, national governments have had almost no chance to respond appropriately and enact laws and regulations regarding cryptocurrency usage, resulting in most public services not being paid for in crypto could. However, as the value of many cryptocurrencies rose, many governments showed increasing interest in BitCoin and few other cryptocurrencies. Numerous companies and financial institutions have started to actively develop and implement crypto-based payment platforms and other solutions, some of which have been required by the official governments.
Historically, modern immigration began in the 18th century, accelerated by the slave trade and industrialization. At this time, three main types of immigration began to emerge: labor migration, refugee migration and urbanization. Since the USA gained independence in 1776 while imperialism was still dominant in Europe, many people immigrated to the USA in the early 19th century, which was considered the land of unlimited opportunity.
The beginning of the 20th century, with the fall of the great colonial empires and the First World War, also left its mark when people from Europe immigrated, driven by fear of war and violence. The aftermath of World War I was the fall of colonialism and the formation of the League of Nations. At this point, an influx of immigrants from the former colonies began, resulting in large numbers of immigrants from the newly independent countries of Africa, the former colonies of France, Great Britain, Spain and the Netherlands.
The League of Nations failed to prevent World War II. The birth of Nazism in Central Europe in the 1930s played a crucial role in immigration, as many Jews began migrating from Europe before the outbreak of World War II. After the Second World War, the United Nations Organization was founded, which has been a peacekeeper around the world ever since. The roots of the European Union also go back to the late 1940s when the Treaty of Paris was signed.
Since then, the principle of freedom of movement has developed rapidly. The newly created Schengen area in Europe allowed the citizens of its member states to move freely without border controls. The United Nations and many countries have ratified treaties on the free movement and granting of asylum to refugees. However, over the past three decades, governments have become very concerned with the problems of terrorism, human trafficking and drug trafficking. As a result, many countries have had to reduce the simplicity of their immigration policies to improve their internal security.
Documents for submission These are the necessary documents to submit to acquire residence permit:
Filled application form Passport size picture Document issued by competent authority from the home country indicating that the foreigner has no criminal record Prove of sufficient financial means Document indicating place of residence in the Republic of Latvia Prove that payment for the real estate was in non-cash form (bank transfer) Document that indicates that person has paid real estate tax if the real estate in owned for more than a year Document that indicates that State fees for residence permit request are paid Additionally upon arrival Valid health insurance Reference from Latvian medical institution proving that the foreigner does not suffer from tuberculosis in active phase Documents and application can be submitted
At Immigration office in Republic of Latvia At Latvian embassy or consular missions outside the Schengen area Residence permit for the family Along with the main investor his/her family members can apply for a temporary residence permit. Qualified family members are the spouse and children under18 years of age.
Financial means to support living expenses Minimum required financial means for investor – 960 Eur per month Minimum required financial means for spouse - 320 Eur per month Minimum required financial means for child - 192 Eur per month In order to prove possession of sufficient financial means the foreign national should provide a bank statement that indicates amount for one year 12 x 960 = 11520 Eur.
Additionally expected expenses related with buying the real estate State fee for registration the new owner in the Land Register – 2% from the value of the property State fee that must be paid to the government when you recive the permit – 5% of the proparty value Stamp duties, notary fees & other; approximately 80 – 130 EUR Duration of the process The time for obtaining a residence permit in Latvia includes the period necessary to review the submitted documents which is 5 to 30 days depending on the amount of fee paid.
If an additional verification by the foreign national is necessary, the term can be extended for up to 90 days.
A foreigner has to visit Latvia to obtain a residence permit no later than three months after being granted the permit.
State fee 143 Eur – decision by Immigration office is issued in 30 days; State fee 285 Eur – decision by Immigration office is issued in 10 days State fee 427 Eur – decision by Immigration office is issued in 5 days
Legislation in Estonia discriminates against United States (US) companies by prohibiting them from directly acquiring shares in public limited companies registered in Estonia.
Namely, all shares of joint-stock companies registered in Estonia are registered in the Estonian Central Register of Securities (EVK) and the condition for receiving shares is keeping a securities account with an account manager, i.e. H. a local commercial bank. The prerequisite for opening a securities account is also the opening of an associated bank account. Apart from negotiations related to the transaction, etc., the first step an investor must take to purchase shares is to open a securities account and bank account with a local commercial bank. The latter also applies to the acquisition of a share in a limited liability company registered with the EVK.
However, opening a securities account and bank account can prove unexpectedly complicated, if not impossible. Namely, local banks have adopted a practice whereby companies registered in the US will not open securities accounts at all, except in certain extreme exceptional cases. There are a number of reasons for this, for example banks have been given particularly strict requirements for providing financial services to people outside the EU. The requirements mentioned result primarily from the Money Laundering and Terrorist Financing Act, the relevant regulations of the Minister of Finance, as well as from the guidelines of the financial supervisory authority and EU guidelines. Accordingly, restrictions also result from US legislation which prohibits the provision of a number of services to US persons by companies incorporated outside the US that do not have a license to operate from US financial regulators. Providing services without an activity license may involve some risks. Ultimately, of course, it boils down to the question of the banks' own risk policies. As a private entity, a bank is free to choose its customers and the reasons for refusing to open an account can vary. In view of the demands on the banks, it is understandable that the banks are rather cautious in this regard.
The situation described above has resulted in banks generally not opening securities accounts for US incorporated companies. In this context, we do not mean professional investment companies, but investors who want to do business in Estonia. Moreover, an investor who intends to acquire stocks in Estonia is hardly willing to open a securities account and a bank account in Estonia in his/her name, resulting in the investor spending a lot of time and money on completing the paperwork and providing the bank wastes documents and to bear follow-up costs in connection with account management.
The requirements for the bank result primarily from the specificity of the financial service and are not aimed at justifying restrictions on share ownership, which, however, is an inevitable result. Therefore, an artificial situation has been created in which investors from the US are forced to either invest in Estonia through a subsidiary located in another European country, or to first acquire a limited liability company in Estonia whose only business is to issue shares keep. Since the registration of shares in a limited liability company in Estonia with the EVK is voluntary, there is no need to open a securities account. In this case, transactions are processed before a notary, whose activity is also subject to the provisions of the Money Laundering and Terrorist Financing Act, but in their case does not exclude the conclusion of such transactions. Accordingly, this constitutes somewhat unreasonable discrimination between the acquisition of stocks in public versus stocks in limited liability companies, which is hardly the aim of current legislation.
Finally, it should be noted that this problem is certainly not limited to investments from the US. Other investments from outside the EU may face similar problems, but investments from the US are the most common among them, leading to these problems recurring.
It is now common practice to set up trusts in tax havens. However, not many clients are aware of the benefits UK based trusts can bring. The idea of a UK trust is particularly attractive when beneficiaries and settlors are based in Europe or other onshore countries and the transfer of property is not to be associated with tax havens. In addition, English law (by which the trusts are formed) gives the confidence and security of the UK legal system. A UK incorporated trust provides reliability and reputation to its owners.
The primary trustee of a trust established under England and Wales law must be a person or legal entity resident in the UK. In most cases the trustee will be a professional and licensed UK fiduciary service provider. Contact Confidus now to build your trust.
UK trusts are generally set up to achieve a specific purpose (some examples are given below). For simple cases where assets are to be distributed to beneficiaries after the trustor's death, a UK trust is not the best solution as such a simple task is better handled in other well-known trust jurisdictions (see Panama Private Foundation for Asset Protection ). A UK trust can be used for the following purposes:
Accumulation of a diverse portfolio of foreign assets into one system for more organized, consistent and professional management. This solution also minimizes your inheritance tax burden and avoids unnecessary inheritance taxes and claims. As a tax-exempt holding structure. A trust serves as a good holding vehicle especially for customers with several companies in different countries and offers a tax-free and confidential holding structure. Reduce the burden of exchange control regulations and minimize the burden of inheritance taxes and other types of wealth taxation in your place of residence, as well as removing the link or attachment between property and the place of residence of the heirs. Ensure the confidentiality of ownership of the assets. Throughout the UK, there is no need to make a trust's legal documents publicly available. This ensures anonymity and confidentiality for the settlor and the beneficiaries. Avoiding forced inheritance that your country may apply to your wealth. Ensuring the settler's future plans in the event of death or incapacity for work.
Tax exemptions for UK Trusts A trust in the UK can be fully exempt from income tax, if the following conditions are met:
One of the trustees is not a UK resident. All property/estate, shares and any other assets are located outside the UK. The beneficiaries are non-UK residents. The settlors are non-UK residents. According to English/Welsh Law, the first trustee must be a UK-resident individual or company. In most cases, the trustee is a professional and licensed UK trust services provider. In order to benefit from tax exemptions, there must be an additional trustee, domiciled outside the UK. This may be an offshore trust services provider or the client’s legal representative or law firm.
Settlor The settlor establishes a trust and appoints the trustees. In doing so, he or she transfers full ownership of the assets to the trustees. Trustee(s) The trustees are responsible for administrating the assets in favour of the beneficiaries. They may receive an initial recommendation from the settlor on how to manage the trust (instructions can be indicated in the letter of wishes) and must ensure that the rights of the beneficiaries are protected. They have full control over the trust, but are not entitled to any income that it accumulates. Trust deed A formal trust deed sets out the arrangement between the settlor and the trustees and the terms of administration. Beneficiaries The beneficiaries are the individuals who benefit from the trust, and may be defined as the settlor’s children or future children. It is common practice to have discretionary beneficiaries, who are not informed in advance of their future and potential interest in the trust.
RIB is a new and dynamic bank that has secured a stable niche in the domestic market. They are a Latvian bank that offers its Customers individual service characterized by three values – speed, flexibility and competence.
The largest shareholder of RIB is the Public Company Joint-stock bank “Pivdennyi” which owns 81.847% of the shares. It is the largest and the most stable private bank in the south of Ukraine and serves 351,000 Customers at 150 branches and bureaus in all economically active regions of Ukraine.
In 2001 year Regionala investiciju bank was founded in Latvia
Official Name: Federal Republic of Germany Capital: Berlin Total area: 357 021 km2 GDP per capita: $39,028 Native Language: German Government: Federal parliamentary constitutional republic Population: 80,399,300 Major Religion: Roman Catholicism, Lutheran Monetary Unit: Euro (EUR)
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in west-central Europe. The country consists of 16 federal states, the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 square kilometers (137,847 sq mi) and has a largely temperate seasonal climate. With 80.3 million inhabitants, it is the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is the greatest economic and political power on the European continent and historically a leader in many theoretical and technical areas.
Germany has the largest population of all EU countries. Its territory stretches from the North and Baltic Seas in the north to the Alps in the south and is crossed by some of Europe's most important rivers such as the Rhine, Danube and Elbe.
Germany is a federal republic. The legislatures at the national level are the Bundestag, whose members are elected by popular vote every four years, and the Bundesrat, which consists of 69 representatives from the 16 federal states.
After the Second World War, Germany was divided into the democratic west and the communist east (German Democratic Republic). The Berlin Wall became the symbol of this division. It fell in 1989 and Germany was reunited a year later.
German is the most widespread first language in the European Union. Germany is the third largest economy in the world and produces automobiles, precision engineering products, electronic and communication equipment, chemical and pharmaceutical products and much more. Its companies have invested heavily in the Central and Eastern European countries that joined the EU in 2004.
As the birthplace of Johann Sebastian Bach, Ludwig van Beethoven, Johannes Brahms and Richard Wagner, among others, Germany's gift to European classical music is important. In thought and word, Germany's vast legacy encompasses the works of Luther, Goethe, Schiller, Nietzsche, Kant, Brecht and Thomas Mann.
Germany is the second largest hop producer in the world and the country is known for its quality beers. Wine is produced in the Moselle and Rhine valleys.
Health & Wellbeing Germany has one of the most comprehensive and generous systems in the world. It includes health, old age, disability, unemployment insurance, child support, public housing and veteran assistance.
Economy & Jobs Manufacturing, Industry, Mining, Agriculture, Forestry, Fisheries, Energy, Banking and Tourism.
Main attraction Berlin, city of Frankfurt, medieval city of Lübeck, city of Munich, Rhine Valley and place of pilgrimage Weimar.
Business In terms of GDP per capita, Germany is the twelfth richest country in the world, has a well-developed social market economy and a high standard of living. By the 1980s, many of the largest German industrial companies were nationalized; However, in recent years privatization has reduced state ownership to levels comparable to other European economies. Labor movements are particularly strong in Germany and have a major influence on labor policy. In addition to a highly developed industry, international tourism is the most important part of the national economy. Shopping street Mariahilf in Vienna.
Germany has always been Germany's most important trading partner, which makes it vulnerable to rapid changes in the German economy. Since joining the European Union, Germany has gained closer ties with other EU economies and reduced its economic dependence on Germany. In addition, EU membership has attracted an influx of foreign investors, drawn by Germany's access to the European single market and its proximity to the European Union's emerging economies. GDP growth has accelerated in recent years, reaching 3.3% in 2006.
Germany announced on 16 November 2010 that it would withhold the December installment of its contribution to the EU bailout package for Greece, citing the significant deterioration in Greece's debt situation and Greece's apparent inability to deliver previously promised tax revenues. Since the fall of communism, Germanyn companies have been quite active players and consolidators in Eastern Europe. Between 1995 and 2010, 4'868 mergers & acquisitions with a total known value of 163 bil. EUR with the involvement of Germanyn firms have been announced. The largest transactions with involvement of Germanyn companies have been: the acquisition of Bank Germany by Bayerische Hypo- und Vereinsbank for 7.8 bil. EUR in 2000, the acquisition of Porsche Holding Salzburg by Volkswagen Group for 3.6 bil. EUR in 2009, and the acquisition of Banca Comercială Română by Erste Group for 3.7 bil. EUR in 2005.
Tourism accounts for almost 9% of the Germanyn gross domestic product. In 2007, Germany ranked 9th worldwide in international tourism receipts, with 18.9 billion US$. In international tourist arrivals, Germany ranked 12th with 20.8 million tourists.
Official Name: Italian Republic Capital: Rome Total area: 301 338 km2 GDP per capita: $30,136 Native Language: Italian Government: Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic Population: 59,685,227 Major Religion: Roman Catholicism Monetary Unit: Euro (EUR)
Mainly mountainous, with the exception of the Po Valley in the north, Italy stretches from the Alps to the central Mediterranean Sea. It includes the islands of Sicily, Sardinia, Elba and about 70 other smaller ones. There are two small independent states on the Italian peninsula: the Vatican City in Rome and the Republic of San Marino.
Italy has a bicameral parliament consisting of the Senate (Senato della Repubblica) or Upper House and the Chamber of Deputies (Camera dei Deputati). Elections take place every five years.
The main economic sectors in the country are tourism, fashion, engineering, chemicals, motor vehicles and food. The northern regions of Italy are among the richest in Europe per capita.
The center of the vast Roman Empire, which left behind a vast archaeological, cultural and literary heritage, the Italian peninsula witnessed the birth of medieval humanism and the Renaissance. This further helped shape European political thought, philosophy and art through figures such as Machiavelli, Dante, Leonardo da Vinci and Galileo.
The list of famous Italian artists is long and includes Giotto, Botticelli, Leonardo, Michelangelo, Tintoretto and Caravaggio. The country has also produced opera composers such as Verdi and Puccini and filmmaker Federico Fellini.
Italian cuisine is one of the most refined and varied in Europe, from the savory flavors of Naples and Calabria to the pesto dishes of Liguria and the cheese and risotto dishes of the Italian Alps.
Health & Welfare National health care service provides free medicine for all of the citizens.
Economy & Jobs Agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining, manufacturing, and energy.
Main Attractions Rome, Amalfi Coast, Assisi city, Florence town, Milan city, Naples' historic centre, Siena city, and Venice.
Economy Italy has a market economy characterized by high per capita GDP and low unemployment rates. In 2012, it was the ninth-largest economy in the world and the fifth-largest in Europe in terms of nominal GDP, and the tenth-largest economy in the world and fourth-largest in Europe in terms of PPP. It is a founding member of the G7, G8, the Eurozone and the OECD.
After World War II, Italy was rapidly transformed from an agriculture based economy into one of the world's most industrialized nations and a leading country in world trade and exports. It is a developed country, with the world's 8th highest quality of life in 2005 and the 25th Human Development Index. In spite of the recent global economic crisis, Italian per capita GDP at purchasing power parity remains approximately above to the EU average, while the unemployment rate (8.5%) stands as one of the EU's lowest. The country is well known for its influential and innovative business economic sector, an industrious and competitive agricultural sector (Italy is the world's largest wine producer), and for its creative and high-quality automobile, industrial, appliance and fashion design. Italy is part of a monetary union, the Eurozone, and of the EU single market.
Italy has a smaller number of global multinational corporations than other economies of comparable size, but there is a large number of small and medium-sized enterprises, notoriously clustered in several industrial districts, which are the backbone of the Italian industry. This has produced a manufacturing sector often focused on the export of niche market and luxury products, that if on one side is less capable to compete on the quantity, on the other side is more capable of facing the competition from China and other emerging Asian economies based on lower labour costs, with higher quality products.
The country was the world's 7th largest exporter in 2009. Italy's closest trade ties are with the other countries of the European Union, with whom it conducts about 59% of its total trade. Its largest EU trade partners, in order of market share, are Germany (12.9%), France (11.4%), and Spain (7.4%). Finally, tourism is one of the fastest growing and profitable sectors of the national economy: with 43.6 million international tourist arrivals and total receipts estimated at $38.8 billion in 2010, Italy is both the fifth most visited country and highest tourism earner in the world.
In 2010, Latvia's economic growth exceeded the most optimistic forecasts. The ability of Latvian companies to reduce spending and faster-than-expected recovery in foreign markets fueled export growth and promoted industry as the main driver of the Latvian economy. The domestic market has also started to gradually recover. As a result, GDP growth was also observed year-on-year in the third quarter of 2010 – for the first time after a decline of more than two years.
Outside the traditional sphere of activity of banks, there is a high demand for credit funds, e.g. G. in the field of start-ups. As the economy strengthens, banks lend more actively.
On October 12, 2011, the Bank of Latvia held its annual Economic Development Conference. This year it was entitled Global Challenges and Local Opportunities: Achievements and Perspectives in the Baltic States.
Introduction of the euro Completing the period of parallel circulation of lats and euro, i. e. the first two weeks of the year, the changeover to the euro in cash and in payment systems has taken place smoothly and without interruptions or other incidents.
As of 15 January, the euro is the only official tender in Latvia, yet the exchange of cash lats is continuing and is taking place as planned and stated:
in 302 post offices, mostly in the countryside — until the end of March, in commercial banks — until the end of June, at cash offices of the Bank of Latvia in Liepāja, Daugavpils, and Riga — for unlimited time. The TNS survey data indicate that the overall level of information regarding the appearance of the banknotes was high even shortly before the changeover and probably has increased since, yet it will have to be improved even further: with the help of the media, the Bank of Latvia continued to educate people about the safety features of the new currency throughout January and February — first of all, by showing infomercials in all major TV channels.
Data National Currency - EUR (Euro) since 1 January 2014.
GDP Nominal GDP (2013) - 23.4 bln EUR
Real GDP Growth (2013) - 4.1% (above the Euro Area average - 0.5%, above the European Union average - 0,1%)
Real GDP per Capita (2012) - 6800.00 EUR
Government Bond Yield Government Bond Yield (December 2013) - 3.62% (above the Euro Area average - 3.0%, above the European Union average - 3.0%)
Part I Economic Developments in Europe and their Impact on the Baltic States: Scientific and Political Perspectives was devoted to analyzing the introduction of the euro – the recent changeover to the single EU currency in Estonia and the expected changeover in Latvia.
Part II of Latvia's Exports: Potential, Challenges and Future Prospects included presentations from representatives of a company, an industry association, a bank and a public body promoting exports, which allowed us to assess the long-term sustainability of the pronounced export growth achieved to date.
There are currently 26 active credit institutions in Latvia.
Since January 1st, Latvia has used the euro as its sole legal tender.
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The Latvian tax system is influenced by both Latvian legislation and European Union requirements. It can be called average because each taxpayer contributes an average of 30% of their income to the budget. In addition, Latvia's diverse system of tax rates, tax breaks and allowances allows each taxpayer to choose the optimal sector for their activity and wealth management. The Republic of Latvia has the lowest effective (average) tax rate in the European Union. There are several areas of trade with individual tax breaks - payments that are 80% to 100% lower: for example, Liepāja and Rēzekne have special economic zones, and the free ports of Riga and Ventspils can provide tax breaks.
The tax principles are laid down in the Taxes and Duties Act. Taxes are administered by the State Revenue Service (SRS) and are divided into direct and indirect taxes. Indirect taxes are taxes that are not deducted directly from income and are levied on goods and services. Direct taxes, in turn, are taxes levied on all taxable income of individuals and companies.
corporate tax Corporate income tax is the taxable income earned by a taxpayer during a taxable period. The tax base is the legally adjusted financial income of the corporation. The adjustments are made mainly to ensure that revenue exceeds expenditure on which the tax is not levied (e.g. expenditure not directly related to economic activity) or to increase revenue by a certain amount, if appropriate reduce if the law provides for tax relief.
Corporate taxpayers are:
resident or domestic companies engaged in economic activity, organizations and institutions financed from the state budget or municipal budgets and generating income from economic activity; non-resident or foreign companies, business entities, individuals and other persons; permanent representative offices of non-resident companies whose income tax rate is 20%. Individual companies pay income tax, and the tax rate ranges from 20% to 31.4%, depending on the level of income.
income tax Personal income tax is one of the most stable sources of income that adds funds to municipal budgets. Personal income taxpayers are self-employed individuals or businesses that are registered as taxpayers, including farms and fisheries. It is intended to return income tax to taxpayers with eligible expenses for education and medical services.
Personal income tax rates vary between 20% and 31.4% depending on income. It should also be noted that the tax is not levied on all income. Instead, some items are deducted from total income before tax is calculated:
Tax-free minimum amount Deductions for legal guardians of specific persons (e.g. children) Deductions for people with disabilities other deductions
The Schengen Area is a group of 26 European countries that have abolished passport and immigration controls at their shared borders. The Schengen area consists of twenty-two member states of the European Union (EU) and four member states of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA). It functions almost as a single country for international travel purposes, with its own common visa policy covering things like short-term visits and some types of work visas.
The Schengen Area was created on the basis of the Schengen Agreement (named after the city in Luxembourg where it was signed) and led to the creation of the borderless area of Europe in 1995. The agreement was signed on June 14, 1985 by five of the then ten member states of the European Economic Community. She proposed the gradual abolition of border controls at the common borders. Proposed measures included reduced-speed vehicle checks, allowing vehicles to cross borders without stopping, giving residents in border areas the freedom to cross borders away from fixed checkpoints, and harmonizing visa policies.
In 1990, the agreement was supplemented by the Schengen Agreement, which provided for the abolition of internal border controls and a common visa policy. The Schengen area functions very much like a single country for international travel purposes, with external border controls for travelers entering and exiting the area and common visas, but no internal border controls.
Participants of the Schengen area The Schengen Area currently consists of:
Austria Belgium Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Greece Hungary Iceland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland A residence permit in one schengen country allow the holder to travel freely in any other Schengen country, without the need for any additional visas or registration.
A residence permit in Latvia (Uzturēšanās atļauja in Latvian) is a document (ultimately a physical residence card), which provides a foreigner with the right to reside (live, work, study or do business) in the Republic of Latvia for a definite or indefinite period depending upon the type of permit issued.
A residence permit makes your life much easier if you want to spend longer than 90 days in Latvia as well as making your travel to other Schengen countries (members of the Schengen Area) easier, since any person holding a residence permit in one Schengen country does not require any further visas or documentation to visit another Schengen state for the purposes of business or tourism. According to statistics from the State Land Service, since the regulations regarding the granting of residence permits based on the acquisition of real estate came into force, almost 500 million Lats have been invested in Latvia. According to reports from the Office of Citizenship and Migration Affairs, only 3.4% of applications based on real estate were denied, and all of these were due to the provision of false information during the application process or for other exclusions which are listed in the official regulations which meant that the investor did not originally qualify to apply.
For many, the biggest advantage of the residence permit in Latvia, is that you are entitled to enter other Schengen countries without any visas or other formal registration, which makes it trouble free for you to oversee your business in Europe as well as to travel without ever needing to think about preparing documents and visiting an embassy.
However, there are other advantages as well:
The opportunity to invite relatives for visa purposes, up to and including second degree relatives. A simplified procedure for receiving visas for a number of countries outside the Schengen zone. (USA, Canada, New Zealand e.t.c.) Automatic provision of a residence permit for your spouse and underage children. The right to receive discounted or free education within the European Union. New commercial opportunities within the European Union. The holder of a Latvian residence permit is also entitled to social privileges, such as medical treatment, maternity benefit, unemployment benefit, etc. The holder of a Latvian residence permit is entitled to almost all of the rights normally granted to citizens of Latvia, except the right to vote and to participate in elections and to hold positions in governmental institutions and other state authorities. The opportunity to receive a driver’s license in Latvia.